In 1985, the port was the busiest in the world. History of Elizabeth, New Jersey : including the early history of Union County by Hatfield, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), 1807-1883. [10] New Sweden, founded in 1638, rose to its height under governor Johan Björnsson Printz (1643–53). Many people had believed the bulletin to be real, causing them to flee the New Jersey area or to blockade their homes to ensure safety from the reported monsters. Each province was independently governed and passed laws specific to the region. Accommodating tax laws of that era gave New Jersey the epithet Mother of Trusts—half of the country’s largest corporations made their headquarters in the state by the early 1900s. The legislature did this in 1975 but failed to fund it. They lived here starting at least 10,000 years ago. [citation needed], In the September 11, 2001, attacks, hijackers took control of four domestic U.S. commercial airliners, including United Airlines Flight 93 which departed from Newark International Airport. 1876 - Thomas Edison opens his famous lab in Menlo Park. Furthermore the "Market Revolution" was well underway, as industrialization and upgraded transportation networks made the larger picture more important than the local economy, and entrepreneurs and politicians became leaders in speeding up the changes. [11] C. A. Nothnagle Log House and Schorn Log Cabin are remainders of this early influence. Around the year 1000, a Native American group known as the Lenape, later called Delaware Indians, settled in New Jersey. New Jersey grew and prospered during the early 1800s. Woodrow Wilson (1911–13), who signed legislation providing for tighter regulation of corporations (later repealed). Camp Merritt was decommissioned in November 1919. See. The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spans the time period from roughly 1000 BCE to 1,000 CE in the eastern part of North America. Because of its high silk production, it became nicknamed the "Silk City". Through the 1800s, over a dozen companies were operating railroad lines. The riots are often cited as a major factor in the decline of Newark and its neighboring communities. At the time it was the territory of the Unami, or Turtle Clan. The state's transportation system continued to improve with the construction of canals and more rail lines that helped industrialization develop further. Explore rich culture in cities like Princeton and New Brunswick, both part of our nation’s history. [25] His most famous inventions included the phonograph, the kinetoscope, the stock ticker, the Dictaphone and the tattoo gun. Official website of the State of NJ. The settlement grew slowly, impeded by mismanagement of the Dutch West India Company and conflicts with the indigenous population known as Kieft's War and The Peach Tree War. New Jersey; Beginnings [1]. By 1833, The Camden & Amboy Railroad had been completed, allowing a 7-hour passage between Philadelphia and New York City. New Jersey was one of the original thirteen colonies that joined in the struggle for independence from Great Britain. The two proprietors of New Jersey tried to entice more settlers to New Jersey by granting land to settlers and by passing Concession and Agreement, a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey; the British Church of England allowed no such religious freedom. Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. In 1756, the school moved to Princeton. At the time of European contact, many tribes of the Lenape lived in the area. Almost a century passed before colonization began with the arrival in 1609 of the English navigator Henry Hudson, who sent a party to explore Sandy Hook Bay. [31] Fort Dix, in Pemberton Township, New Jersey, was also constructed in 1917 to help in the war effort. They also gathered nuts in the autumn such as acorns, hickory nuts, walnuts, butternuts, beech nuts and chestnuts. Baron von Knyphausen, the Hessian general, hoped to invade New Jersey and expected support from colonists of New Jersey who were tired of the war. Soldiers from New Jersey fought generally in the War's Eastern theater. Prior to 1664 when it was surrendered to the English, the New Jersey Colony region had … By 1974, the missile sites were deactivated. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, the Continental Army, commanded by General George Washington, made the famous crossing of the Delaware River. Over 1,500 pilots were trained for advanced aircraft fighting at this airport. This position was first filled by the election of Kim Guadagno who assumed office in 2009. Before, ferries were required to travel across the Hudson River. They divided the land in half and gave control to two proprietors: Sir George Carteret (who was in charge of the east side) and Lord John Berkley (who was in charge of the west side). The incidents occurred during a deadly heat wave and polio epidemic in the Northeastern United States that drove thousands of people to the seaside resorts of the Jersey Shore. Insisting that John Cabot had been the first to discover North America, the British granted the land that now encompasses New Jersey to the Duke of York (later James II & VII), who ordered Colonel Richard Nicolls to take over the area. The publication of this survey helped to increase the state's involvement in agricultural research and direct support to farmers. Federal expert Arthur Koehler carefully examined the ladder used by the kidnapper, which he traced to a company in McCormick, South Carolina. [2], Later other Native Americans settled in New Jersey. Faden, Charing Cross, December 1, 1778 Scale: "about 69½ British miles to a degree" (roughly 6.6 miles… Contrary to popular belief, the Hindenburg had flown an entire year of successful voyages before it caught on fire. In the 1950s, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey planned and built the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in the cities of Newark and Elizabeth. [47] Before, the island had been governed by the state of New York. The first ocean-going steamboat went from Hoboken, New Jersey, sailed around southern New Jersey, and ended in Philadelphia. By the mid-1830s the Democrats and the Whigs had fully mobilize practically all of the voters into pro-and anti--Jackson coalitions. The last was on the east bank of the Delaware River,[6] the site of the first European settlement in what would become New Jersey. The Native Americans and Paleo-Indians fished in all rivers and streams using nets and fish hooks and by hand. Like the rest of the United States, the people of New Jersey were hit hard by the Great Depression. The New Jersey Colony was founded by Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley in 1664. King Charles II had granted the lands between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers to the Duke. The airfield, currently known as McGuire Air Force Base, was opened in 1937 as Rudd Field, a supporting Army airfield for Fort Dix. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the 19th century, New Jersey cities led the United States into the Industrial Revolution and provided soldiers for many of the wars the United States fought, including 88,000 men for the American Civil War. The proprietors appointed Philip Carteret as the first governor of New Jersey, who designated Elizabethtown as the colony's capital. [19] The loyalists included the governor of New Jersey, William Franklin. No specific agreements were reached, especially in the area of restrictions on anti-ballistic missile systems. They also fished in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. Many of the New Jersey settlers still felt ties of loyalty to the British crown, and many slaves sided with the British in exchange for freedom. Cities throughout New Jersey offer one-of-a-kind experiences that will leave lasting memories long after your visit. The colony had originally been settled by the Dutch as part of New Netherland, but came under British rule after the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, becoming a proprietary colony. Cars became easily affordable and roads were paved and improved such that they incorporated new road features, including jughandle turns. 1680 – Duke of York's Second Grant to William Penn, Gawn Lawry, Nicholas Lucas, John Eldridge, Edmund Warner, and Edward Byllynge, for the Soil and Government of West New Jersey-August 6; 1681 – Province of West New-Jersey, in America, The 25th of the Ninth Month Called November; 1682 – Duke of York's Confirmation to the 24 Proprietors: 14 March New Jersey was a center of shipbuilding and manufacturing during World War I. En Español David Brearly, New Jersey Brearly (Brearley) was descended from a Yorkshire, England, family, one of whose members migrated to New Jersey around 1680. They manufactured many necessities, including clothing and war materials like ammunition. He started the Motion Picture Patents Company. The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken over by England in 1664, and the Province of New Jersey was given to two loyalists of King James II: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration. Locomotion was also improved; Hoboken-born inventor John Stevens built a 10-ton locomotive and his son Robert L. Stevens started constructing iron railroads. Dorwart, Jeffery M., and Mackey, Philip English. Block, H. Christiaensen and C. Mey surveyed land between the 40th and 45th parallels along the Atlantic coast and named the area they surveyed New Netherlands. The exact line between West and East Jersey generally corresponded to the Keith Line between present day South and North Jersey and was created by George Keith. Paleo-Indians first settled in the area of present-day New Jersey after the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B.C. The retreat nearly led to disorder, but Washington managed to rally the troops to withstand two British counter-attacks, both of which failed. Bruce A. Bendler, "The Steam Mill and Jacksonian Politics: The Career of William N. In 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution.[1]. In the Battle of Trenton which followed the crossing, the American soldiers surprised the Hessians, capturing nearly 900 prisoners in 90 minutes and taking supplies that had been meant for the British army. From the colony of New Netherland, the Dutch interfered with Britain's transatlantic trade with its North American colonies. The city became an important site for mills and other industries. Led by Printz, the settlement extended north from Fort Christina on both sides of the Delaware River. In the Paterson riot, twenty stores and other buildings were damaged, and eight people were injured. New Jersey’s legislative history is particularly complex because the Quinpartite Deed of 1676 divided the colony into two distinct provinces: East Jersey and West Jersey. The Zierdt site in Montague, Sussex County and the Plenge site along the Musconetcong River in Franklin Township, Warren County, as well as the Dutchess Cave in Orange County, New York, represent camp sites of Paleo-Indians. New Jersey ratified and then signed the Articles of Confederation on November 26, 1779. The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of the United States in 1783. Nike Missile Sites in New Jersey. The Goldman Sachs Tower was constructed in Jersey City as part of this relocation. Descendants of Founders of New Jersey; a society of those associated with the earliest development of our state. It had originally convened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but mutinous troops prevented the meeting from taking place. The people of New Jersey also cast their electoral votes for George B. McClellan when he ran for President against Abraham Lincoln in the election of 1864. However, after the court decision, disagreements between New Jersey and New York led to the sharing of jurisdiction over the island by the two states. In September 1664, a British fleet under Nicolls' command sailed into what is now New York Harbor and seized the colony. Newark's breweries reopened almost immediately. New Jersey; Beginnings [1]. [24] As agriculture became a less reliable source of income for New Jerseyans, many began turning towards more industrialized methods. As temperatures increased to over 100 °F (38 °C), many soldiers fell to sunstroke. The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783. In addition, a regional command center was built in New Jersey. It was expanded during wartime operations and turned over to the Air Force in 1949.[40]. Paleo Indians were hunter-gatherers, hunting game and gathering plants for eating. The people had the distinction of being the only free state that rejected Lincoln twice. The Delaware and Raritan canal ran from New Brunswick, New Jersey, on the Raritan River, to Bordentown, New Jersey, on the Delaware River. Almost a century passed before colonization began with the arrival in 1609 of the English navigator Henry Hudson, who sent a party to explore Sandy Hook Bay. In the Elizabeth riot, six people were injured and seventeen stores were damaged. 2 (1992): 159–193. This was not enough to stave off 317 Dutch soldiers the next year, however. Underneath the constitution, the people had the right to elect the governor. Questions and controversy surround the accident to this day: theories for the sudden burst of flames include sabotage against the German Nazis, static build-up, and flammable fabric. The English explorer Henry Hudson (1570–1611), who explored portions of New Jersey's coastline 601,146 62 sq mi (161 km 2) Hunterdon County: 019: Flemington: 1714: Burlington County: Robert Hunter (1664–1734), the Colonial Governor of New Jersey from 1710 to 1720 In 1664 the Dutch lost New Netherlands when the British took control of the land and added it to their colonies. When Virginia delegates proposed a plan calling for representation based on the population of each state, the smaller states refused, fearing that with such a plan they would no longer have a say in government affairs. New Jersey played a major role in creating the structure of the new United States Government. In 1676 the province was divided into East and West Jersey, the former going to Sir George Carteret and the latter to a group of Friends (Quakers). Throughout the colonial era, New Jersey was agrarian and rural, attracting a diverse population of … The New Jersey Colony was originally named the Province of New Jersey, after the British island named Jersey. The new State Constitution also returned the right of suffrage to females and non-whites. As a result, people who had never been farther than the outskirts of their hometown now could travel around the state. Many women took jobs in factories during their husbands' absences. New Jersey was one of the few states to favor Stephen Douglas over Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential election. Jon Corzine was elected Governor of New Jersey on November 8, 2005, and took office on January 17, 2006. The New Jersey legislature passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, providing that no person born after that date would be a slave. During the 1960s, many African Americans felt disenfranchised, feelings exacerbated by poor urban conditions, declining industrial jobs, and biased police forces with little minority representation. For several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, letters bearing a Trenton, New Jersey postmark and containing anthrax bacteria were mailed to several news media offices and two US Senators. [37] Nearly 500,000 residents enlisted for the war,[38] more than 10% of the total population of New Jersey. A master plan for the state’s development, first adopted in 1992 and subsequently updated, aimed to direct growth toward existing infrastructure. With the advent of the bow-and-arrow and of pottery around the year 500 A.D., extended family groups began to stay in areas longer. A Brief History of the State of New Jersey. New Jersey driver license/ID. New Jersey was the last northern state to abolish slavery completely, and by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. The Motivation for Founding the New Jersey Colony In 1664, James, the Duke of York, received control of New Netherland. Washington hoped to surprise and overwhelm the rear of the British army. In the year 1664, the Duke of York, proprietary of the province of New York, assigned to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret the tract of country to the east of the Delaware River, and extending to the Hudson and the Atlantic. You may bring a completed Application for Driver History … The story of the area of present-day New Jersey begins at the end of the Younger Dryas, about 15,000 years ago. Faden, Charing Cross, December 1, 1778 Scale: "about 69½ British miles to a degree" (roughly 6.6 miles to 1 inch) Copperplate map,… In the middle of the Cold War from June 23 to June 25, 1967, president Lyndon Johnson met with Soviet premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey, for the Glassboro Summit Conference. Camp Merritt, in Cresskill, was activated for use in World War I. Gunners in the fort prevented German submarines from entering New York Harbor. This was the first port in the world to containerize due to the innovation of Malcolm McLean and the founding of the Sea-Land Corporation. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738. Simultaneously, there was a rise of “edge cities” (suburban areas that contain all or most of the functions once found only in an urban context). In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to reach New Jersey. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, sailing in the service of France, explored the Jersey Coast[4] including Sandy Hook and The Narrows, now the site of the bridge which bears his name. Becoming a state upon the formation of the United States, New Jersey saw significant action during the American Revolutionary War. The attacks caused 2,986 deaths, including about 700 residents of New Jersey. Native Americans moved into New Jersey soon after the reversal of the Younger Dryas; before then an ice sheet hundreds of feet thick had made the area of northern New Jersey uninhabitable. Finally, in 1738, New Jersey was separated from New York under its … After recapturing Trenton, he ordered charges on fortified defenses at Assunpink Creek. In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall of Princeton University. The victories breathed new life into the Revolution, and an army of colonials near despair was transformed into an effective fighting force. Until 1738 a single governor ruled New Jersey and New York. (See Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal). Historians have examined the emergence of the Second Party System at the state and local level. The state was the site of more than 100 battles, earning it the nickname Crossroads of the Revolution. The Motivation for Founding the New Jersey Colony . On April 15, 1702, under the reign of Queen Anne, West and East Jersey were reunited as a royal colony. The Lenape formed loosely organized groups who at first migrated seasonally. Princeton became the temporary capital for the nation for four months. [44] at the Glassboro State College. Province of New Jersey (1778) - Faden The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys Second Edition [of three] with Considerable Improvements Engraved & Published by Wm. They moved as soon as game or plants became scarce. Membership includes those descendants who remained in New Jersey and those who have fanned out across the nation. Existing factories such as the Singer Company in Elizabeth, New Jersey were converted to making weapon parts. [28] New Jersey at first refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendment banning slavery. Journal of the Early Republic, 12, no. 1804 - New Jersey becomes the last northern state to abolish slavery. The New Jersey Colony was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became the U.S. state of New Jersey in 1776. The Constitution declared itself temporary and to be void if there was reconciliation with Great Britain. [46], In 1998, the south side of Ellis Island came under the jurisdiction of New Jersey following a US Supreme Court decision, New Jersey v. New York. Philip Carteret arriving at the colony of New Jersey in 1665 to serve as its governor, from a 19th-century coloured engraving. In 1937, the German zeppelin Hindenburg exploded over Lakehurst Naval Air Station in Manchester. With the 1676 Quintipartite Deed more accurate surveys and maps were made resulting in the Thornton Line, drawn around 1696, and the Lawrence Line, drawn around 1743, which was adopted as the final line for legal purposes. During the war Long Pond Ironworks and Batsto Iron Works (both founded 1766) supplied munitions to American troops. Energy was harnessed from the 77 feet (23 m) high Great Falls of the Passaic River. The new constitution also provided a bill of rights. In 1776 New Jersey adopted its first constitution, which granted suffrage to women (although the legislature revoked this right in 1807). CBS was criticized for allowing fictitious bulletins to gain attention of listeners. Millville Airport opened on August 2, 1941. New Jersey, A History. After the victory, George Washington led the army back across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. Many industrial cities like Paterson and Camden grew strong through Civil War production. Some important components of the second State Constitution include the separation of the powers of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. [34] Under the Works Progress Administration, part of the Second New Deal by FDR, many new jobs were provided in order to support the poor, including the expansion of Fort Dix, Roosevelt Park in Edison, and Rutgers Stadium in Piscataway. New Netherland west of the Hudson River was renamed New Jersey after the English Channel Island of Jersey which Charles II of England, after having seen their loyalty to the crown, gave to the people of Jersey as a gift having given him hospitality in the castle of Mont Orgueil before he was proclaimed king in 1649. Purvis, Thomas L. "The European Origins of New Jersey's Eighteenth Century Population,", Levine, Peter. [36] The Lindbergh kidnapping led to passage of the Federal Kidnapping Act, also known as the "Lindbergh Law", which made kidnapping a federal crime. However, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which banned alcohol manufacturing & sales, was later repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in December 1933. Former Governor James E. McGreevey resigned on November 15, 2004 after charges of pay-to-play and extortion scandals involving the impropriety of the appointment of an unqualified long rumored homosexual love interest. The New Jersey Colony was originally named the Province of New Jersey, after the British island named Jersey. The Americans inflicted heavy casualties on the British from their defenses. Suffrage had been awarded to those groups under the original New Jersey State Constitution of 1776. This action prevented the river from being easily taken by the English and Dutch, who were also trying to expand into the New World. The state became a component of the Underground Railroad. During the war, Naval Weapons Station Earle in Monmouth County was opened for naval production and provided ships with a safe port to take on ammunition. ", Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia, "World War II Time Line: New Jersey and the World", "Progress toward Equal Educational Opportunity for Urban Students in New Jersey", "THE ELLIS ISLAND VERDICT: THE RULING; High Court Gives New Jersey Most of Ellis Island", Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration. He sent a small English force to blockade the harbor at New Amsterdam. New Jersey shipyards were responsible for the construction of many naval ships in World War II, including battleships, aircraft carriers, heavy cruisers and destroyers, receiving 9% of all allied war-related contracts through the war. The city of New Amsterdam was renamed New York (after the Duke of York). New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. In its early years of statehood, New Jersey concentrated on rebuilding its economy from the damage done during the war. Later, systems of canals were built, the first of which is called the Morris Canal and ran from Phillipsburg, New Jersey, on the Delaware River to Jersey City, New Jersey, on the Hudson River. Though they were considered one tribe, the Delaware Indians didn't act as one … Fort Dix was reopened for the training of soldiers for the war effort. Welles and the other broadcasters were not punished by law, but were held under a brief informal "house arrest" for a short period. [39] Fort Hancock was also opened in Sandy Hook. The division continued until 1702, when the entire province reverted to the crown. Although no Civil War battles were fought within New Jersey, the state sent over 88,000 soldiers as part of some 31 infantry and cavalry regiments, and over 6,000 died in the war. The Swedish and Finnish colonists generally lived in peace with their Dutch and Lenape neighbors. Descendants of Founders of New Jersey; a society of those associated with the earliest development of our state. Education came through small religious schools, private academies, or tutors. Discover how New Jersey's industrial might, exemplified by the Trenton Iron Works, contributed to the Union military effort during the American Civil War. This sale divided the province into East Jersey and West Jersey. [48] Over 160,000 people were evacuated by ferries and small boats from the Manhattan area to New Jersey because the NYCS and PATH stations were closed down. New Jersey is referred to as the "Crossroads of the Revolution" because the British and Continental armies fought several crucial battles there. They practiced small-scale agriculture (companion planting), such as growing corn and pole beans together and squash. He sent a small English force to blockade the harbor at New Amsterdam. At the end of World War II, the government closed down the internment camps, but many people from the camps continued to work at Seabrook Farms.[41]. New Jersey became one of the Thirteen Colonies which broke away from Britain in the American Revolution, adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776. As New Jersey moves through its fourth century of history, it continues to fulfill its potential as a diverse and richly gifted state. A new political system emerged by the end of the decade as voters polarized in support or opposition to Jackson. Unlike other colonists, who suffered from the harshness of English rule, the early Jerseyans were of such an independent nature that it was the royal governors who did much of the suffering. Edison worked in Menlo Park, and was known as "the Wizard of Menlo Park" for his many inventions; over the course of his life, he was granted 1,093 patents. He took advantage of military coercion in order to increase his own power, shown in an event with Van Slechtenhorst. Politically, New Jersey is often a swing state in national elections. The Quaker population was especially intolerant of slavery, and the state was a major part of the Underground Railroad. Stories of New Jersey, "New Jersey in the American Revolution, 1763-1783: A Documentary History", New Jersey county information for students, Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_New_Jersey&oldid=995172866, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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